jueves, 22 de octubre de 2009

El aforamiento o el permiso para robar

Las leyes desaparecen o se transforman cuando dejan de ser útiles, cuando pierden el sentido. Desaparecen, claro, a no ser que los beneficiados de tales disposiciones legales sean los que las deben derogar; es decir, los políticos. Esto es lo que pasa con la inmunidad parlamentaria y, más concretamente, con el aforamiento judicial del que disfrutan diputados, senadores y otras altas instancias el Estado y les permite burlar al juez ordinario y que sus causas las vean directamente las máximas instancias judiciales. A cuenta del caso "Gürtel" hemos contemplado como distintos diputados y senadores del Partido Popular se han acogido a su privilegio procesal, a su aforamiento, como un naufrago se aferra a la tabla de madera salvadora en alta mar. Es la inmunidad entendida como impunidad. Se trata de una prueba más de hasta que punto la casta política ha perdido el sentido de la realidad. Los políticos utilizan en beneficio propio lo que nació como una garantía finalista para los ciudadanos. Les da igual a nuestros "padres de la patria" conculcar un principio fundamental del sistema democrático como es aquello de que "la ley es igual para todos"; para todos menos para los que tienen la suerte de llegar a un cargo institucional, deberían añadir. Cargo al que, ya lo sabemos, se accede mayormente a base de medrar, arrimarse a la familia política que más interesa y olvidar el servicio al ciudadano para consagrarse en las atenciones al líder supremo.
De lo que huyen senadores, diputados y demás es de que les pueda pillar Garzón o un "garzón" de los que corre por ahí y que no ha llegado al Tribunal Supremo o al Superior de Justicia que corresponda nombrado por los mismos políticos a los que después enjuiciará. Les importa un bledo quedar en evidencia ante el ciudadano, lo que les preocupa es salvar su culo. (Recojo a continuación dos artículos recientes en el diario "El País" alrededor de este tema: el primero es del periodista especializado en tema judiciales Manuel Altozano y el segundo, de Francesc Vallés, profesor de Derecho Constitucional y diputado del PSC-PSOE).
El debate sobre la inmunidad parlamentaria y las garantías que conlleva está planteado en todo el mundo. Lo que preocupa es, precisamente, lo que está sucediendo con estos dirigentes españoles del PP que usan sus privilegios como parlamentarios para escapar de las acusaciones de corrupción que penden sobre ellos por prácticas que nada tienen que ver con su trabajo como cargos electos. Por los abusos y las trampas de "jugadores de ventaja" como Francisco Camps, Luis Barcenas y demás es por lo que está en discusión como se garantiza el ejercicio de la labor parlamentaria sin que eso comporte vías para que los políticos corruptos escapen de la justicia (puede verse al respecto la resolución que sobre el tema de la inmunidad aprobó la Organización Mundial de Parlamentarios contra la Corrupción "GOPAC", en 2006).
La inmunidad parlamentaria, de donde sale el aforamiento, viene de leyes inglesas y francesas de hace más de dos siglos (puede verse aquí un artículo amplio sobre la inmunidad parlamentaria elaborado por un abogado peruano, Derick Latorre). En ese momento se debió legislar para evitar que los organismos judiciales tradicionales y ligados a la nobleza pudieran impedir la actividad de las cámaras legislativas emanadas de la voluntad popular. Debe quedar claro, por consiguiente, que no se protege al político por el hecho de serlo, ni por una cuestión personal, lo que se protege es el cargo, la función que se desempeña. Se trata de evitar que poderes ajenos a la voluntad popular puedan fácilmente condicionar la actividad parlamentaria o dejar fuera de juego a cualquier político que no se pliegue a sus intereses. En el fondo estamos ante una medida para proteger al ciudadano otorgando un privilegio a su representante para que pueda desempeñar su función adecuadamente y con plena libertad. Por eso se sacrifica el principio de la "igualdad ante la ley". Nada más lejos, pues, de lo que hacen los políticos del PP: sacar la bandera de su aforamiento no para defender su actividad como parlamentarios sino para escapar, vía amigos jueces, de sus oscuros negocios económicos y de sus corrupciones varias. Por eso no dimiten así se hunda el mundo. Es más, y puesto que en Valencia los abusos siempre llegan con unos años de antelación, el PP valenciano, con el ahora perseguido Francisco Camps al frente, colocó en las listas de las últimas elecciones autonómicas a dos de sus más destacados alcaldes, Pedro Hernández Mateo, de Torrevieja, y Luis Díaz Alperi, de Alicante, para que pudieran huir del juez que los había imputado por corrupción. Una vez adquirida su condición de diputados, el Tribunal Superior de Justicia tardó un par de meses en archivar la causa contra Alperi, mientras la de Hernández Mateo se mantiene congelada.
Resulta obvio que la legislación alrededor de la inmunidad parlamentaria debería, como poco, revisarse a la baja. Ahora ya no hay un poder judicial deudor de los intereses nobiliarios enfrentados a la voluntad popular representada en los parlamentos. Por tanto, o se acaba con estos aforamientos convertidos en privilegios personales de una casta política absolutamente desvergonzada o, como mínimo, se limita a lo que es estrictamente la actividad parlamentaria. Yo voto por la abolición.

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